Whilst some of the functionality is dependent upon a MySQL instance and php server it is recommended to install either WAMP (e.g. XAMMP), LAMP or MAMP depending upon the target operating system (Windows / Linux / Mac OS X).
This dependency may be reduced at a later date, but is current at the time of writing.
php 5.2.x with openssl and curl modules enabled
Apache 2.x with rewrite, ssl, proxy, proxy_http, vhost_alias modules enabled